Key diagnostic tests
Dagnosis can be assisted with the use of a frequency/volume chart (bladder diary). This is a simple and practical method of obtaining objective quantification of fluid intake, functional bladder capacity and voiding (urine emptying) behaviour. Frequency and times of voiding, voided volumes and leakage episodes (day and night) are all recorded for at least 24 hours and typically 3 days.
Reagent-strip (dipstick) testing of urine for leukocyte esterase, nitrates, protein, blood and glucose is a sensitive and cheap screening test.
Bladder ultrasound scan
An ultrasound scan of the bladder can show how much urine is left in the bladder after urinating.
Urodynamic testing comprises a group of tests to check the function of the bladder and urethra. This may include keeping a bladder diary for a few days (see above) and then attending an appointment at a hospital or clinic for some further tests.